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ADHTISM: it’s real, and it’s here …

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The Relationship Between ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ADHtism)

In recent years, there has been a move to diagnose some kids with both Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at the same time. At ADDspeaker, we’ve coined the phrase ADHtism to better communicate on this complex condition. Here is the explanation to why this is both important and relevant

#ADHTISM #ADHD #AUTISM #ASD #ADDSPEAKER

DEFINITION

In the United States, these disorders are defined by a psychiatric guide to diagnoses called the Diagnostic Statisticians’ Manual (DSM), which is currently in its fifth iteration (DSM-5). Is double diagnosis an accurate approach? Does it reflect biology in these kids? Let’s look further into how this situation came about.

Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, ADHD is a specific developmental disorder. Autism causes deficits on all levels of functioning (Sensory and Cognitive perceptions), ADHD causes deficits on primarily Executive Functioning (Inhibition and behaviour)

ADDspeaker

DIAGNOSIS

To make medical diagnoses, physicians traditionally rely on three things: the history given to them by patients, an office exam, and medical tests. Examples of medical tests doctors use to help make diagnoses include X-Rays, MRIs or CT scans (to look at anatomy), EKGs or EEGs (to look at overall electrical activity patterns in electrochemically active organs like the heart or brain), and bloodwork and tissue biopsies (to look at metabolic and cellular information). Increasingly, doctors do DNA tests that contribute genetic information to the diagnostic process.

TESTING

Tests are particularly useful for making a diagnosis when the underlying biology of a medical condition is well understood. When doctors are successful at reaching a diagnosis, they generally call the condition a “disease.” But this word doesn’t apply very well to the vast majority of neuropsychiatric conditions — including both ASD and ADHD. That is why these conditions are called “disorders” (or even “spectrum disorders”) and not “diseases.” 

DISORDER vs. DISEASE

Behavioral disorders — ASD, ADHD, and all other psychiatric disorders — are generally not caused by a single biological abnormality or genetic mutation. Instead, each of these disorders can be caused by literally hundreds of genetic or biological variants, most often in combination, and they have other contributors too. Behavioral disorders may be caused by prenatal infection or other prenatal trauma, premature birth, post-natal malnutrition, stress or other environmental issues both in the past and present — and of course, interactions between all these factors put together. 

An illness or a disease can potentially be cured, a disorder cannot, it’s chronic, genetic or neurobiological, and something you’re born with.

ADDspeaker

SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS

Given that medical tests aren’t very useful when it comes to diagnosing behavioral disorders, what do doctors have to go on? They have to rely on the history offered to them by patients and the office exam. To make neuropsychiatric diagnoses, doctors ask about behavioral symptoms and observe patients in the office firsthand, and then they categorize: If a patient has behavioral symptom A, behavioral symptom B, and behavioral symptom C, then (assuming the condition is severe enough) they qualify for the diagnosis of Behavioral Disorder X.

OVERLAPPING SYMPTOMS

These behavioral diagnostic categories are useful. For one thing, they have proved to be very handy for guiding appropriate clinical treatment, including both medication and non-medication treatments. They are also used by researchers, insurance companies, and school administrators — but they have limitations, one of which is that human behavior can never really be compartmentalized so neatly. For example, although there are several types of anxiety disorders listed in the DSM, the general condition of “anxiety” is found across many other behavioral disorders. So although ASD is not considered an “anxiety disorder” people with ASD are often anxious. So are people with ADHD, as are people with migraines, asthma, cardiac arrhythmia, etc.

UNDERSTANDING COMPLEXITY

To put it another way, behavioral issues that patients face are not so easily cataloged as medical books (including the DSM) might tempt a person to believe. The DSM is just a tool designed to categorize human behavior in a clinically useful way — but it is inherently artificial, and must be taken with a grain of salt (and preferably used by a well-trained clinician with plenty of practical experience and good judgment).

CO-OCCURRENCE

For years, the DSM stated that the diagnoses of ASD and ADHD were mutually exclusive. In the latest version of DSM, however, co-diagnosis is allowed. As it turns out, on the basis of simple symptom categorization, there is a fair amount of overlap between these two behavioral conditions. Here are some statistics: There is a 5-10% incidence of ADHD overall in children, and a 2-5% incidence of ASD. Based on DSM-5 criteria, around 50% of children diagnosable with ASD could also be diagnosed with ADHD, and around 15% of children diagnosable with ADHD could be also be diagnosed with ASD. 

GENETICS

Why do these two disorders have so much overlap? For one thing, there is overlap in their behavioral signs and symptomatology. Both disorders make kids appear less engaged. Inattentive behavior in ADHD may cause affected children to miss social cues, for example, which can resemble mild ASD. Kids with ADHD have a higher rate of rejection by their peers, which can lead to them being more withdrawn, which may also resemble ASD. Children with both disorders may have, or develop, problems with empathy, as well as facial recognition.

COMORBIDITY

Children with ASD and ADHD both have high rates of depression and anxiety. Impulsive behavior and deficits in planning (executive functioning) are common to both disorders. Both disorders include problems with pragmatic language, as well as with cognitive flexibility. Both disorders are more often found in the presence of intellectual disability or more specific learning disabilities such as in language, reading or motor skills. There may, in fact, be some underlying genetic or other biological factors common to both disorders: In many families where there is a child with ASD, there is a higher incidence of other family members who have ADHD (and vice versa). 

Somatic comorbidity is all too often overlooked, which is unfortunate since many somatic illnesses can help diagnose ADHtism. Examples are: Autoimmune (Asthma and Allergy, Diabetes Type II), Metabolic (Obesity, Binge Eating, Anorexia, Bulimia), Gastrointestinal (Crohn’s), Rheumatoid (Arthritis) and Circadian Disruption (Sleep Disorders).

ADDspeaker

RESEARCH EVIDENCE

Although we already mentioned that medical tests including brain MRIs are usually not that helpful in making psychiatric diagnosis, at a research level some interesting differences and similarities have been found in brain scans of people with these disorders. Note that these differences are not generally discernable on a single scan and so are not very useful when examining an individual patient at this time — this is research data averaged over hundreds or thousands of test subjects. Consult the REFERENCES section of this article for a list of the latest research on ADHtism.

ANATOMY

ADHD primarily affects the CNS, and Autism primarily affects the PNS, but both cause cognitive and behavioral deficits. (ADDspeaker)

That said, there is a larger total brain and white matter volume in a subset of patients with ASD, but this is not typically seen in ADHD, whereas in both disorders a smaller corpus callosum (a connection between the right and left hemispheres of the brain) has been found in some patients. In functional neuroimaging, where different parts of the brain “light up” depending on the rate of metabolism while a person performs a wide range of tasks, the most consistent finding in both disorders is reduced activation of front and side brain regions (the frontal and parietal lobes).

BEHAVIOUR

Effective behavioral treatments for the two disorders also have some similarities and some differences: In ASD the major goal is usually to promote social skills development, whereas in ADHD the major goal is usually on managing executive tasks; but controlling impulsive behavior is often a therapeutic focus in both disorders.

THERAPY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENT

Many of the therapeutic techniques used in each disorder are similar. For example, the positive reinforcement of desired behaviors, achieving consistent quality sleep, engaging in regular exercise, and assembling appropriate educational support are important strategies for treating both disorders.

MEDICATION

There is also overlap in the medications used to treat these two disorders. As with behavioral treatment, medication management focuses on targeting specific symptom improvement. So whether your child has ASD or ADHD, if the goal is to improve attention, a medication that has been FDA-approved for attention (ADHD) may be helpful. Conversely, there are some medications that have been FDA-approved for impulsive behaviors such as aggression in ASD. Although less common, these medications may sometimes be useful for impulse control in severe ADHD.

SUMMARY

In summary, if you or your child has been given a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD or any combination thereof, focus on treating actual behavioral challenges more than a diagnosis listed in a book or on a website. If your child has specific challenges with hyperactivity/impulsivity, then look for behavioral strategies or medications to address that particular problem. If social skills training is needed, focus on that.

Always remember that just because something has worked for some other person ostensibly with the same diagnosis, that treatment may or may not be appropriate or what works best for you or your child. Treatment must always be based on what’s in the best interest of the patient — who is an individual with an individualized behavioral condition, not a categorical diagnosis in a book.

REFERENCES

Sokolova, E., Oerlemans, A. M., Rommelse, N. N., Groot, P., Hartman, C. A., Glennon, J. C., … Buitelaar, J. K. (2017). A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 47(6), 1595–1604. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3083-7

Mikami, A. Y., Miller, M., & Lerner, M. D. (2019). Social functioning in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder: transdiagnostic commonalities and differences. Clinical psychology review, 68, 54–70. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2018.12.005

Ghirardi, L., Brikell, I., Kuja-Halkola, R., Freitag, C. M., Franke, B., Asherson, P., … Larsson, H. (2018). The familial co-aggregation of ASD and ADHD: a register-based cohort study. Molecular psychiatry, 23(2), 257–262. doi:10.1038/mp.2017.17

Shephard, E., Tye, C., Ashwood, K. L., Azadi, B., Asherson, P., Bolton, P. F., & McLoughlin, G. (2018). Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 48(1), 110–122. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3300-4

Stergiakouli, E., Davey Smith, G., Martin, J., Skuse, D. H., Viechtbauer, W., Ring, S. M., … St Pourcain, B. (2017). Shared genetic influences between dimensional ASD and ADHD symptoms during child and adolescent development. Molecular autism, 8, 18. doi:10.1186/s13229-017-0131-2

Manohar, H., Kuppili, P. P., Kandasamy, P., Chandrasekaran, V., & Rajkumar, R. P. (2018). Implications of comorbid ADHD in ASD interventions and outcome: Results from a naturalistic follow up study from south India. Asian journal of psychiatry, 33, 68–73. doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2018.03.009

Carter Leno, V., Chandler, S., White, P., Pickles, A., Baird, G., Hobson, C., … Simonoff, E. (2018). Testing the specificity of executive functioning impairments in adolescents with ADHD, ODD/CD and ASD. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 27(7), 899–908. doi:10.1007/s00787-017-1089-5

Rommelse, N., Buitelaar, J. K., & Hartman, C. A. (2017). Structural brain imaging correlates of ASD and ADHD across the lifespan: a hypothesis-generating review on developmental ASD-ADHD subtypes. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996), 124(2), 259–271. doi:10.1007/s00702-016-1651-1

Muskens, J. B., Velders, F. P., & Staal, W. G. (2017). Medical comorbidities in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: a systematic review. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 26(9), 1093–1103. doi:10.1007/s00787-017-1020-0

Waddington, F., Hartman, C., de Bruijn, Y., Lappenschaar, M., Oerlemans, A., Buitelaar, J., … Rommelse, N. (2018). Visual and auditory emotion recognition problems as familial cross-disorder phenomenon in ASD and ADHD. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(9), 994–1005. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2018.06.009

Thomas, S., Sciberras, E., Lycett, K., Papadopoulos, N., & Rinehart, N. (2018). Physical Functioning, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems in Children With ADHD and Comorbid ASD: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of attention disorders, 22(10), 1002–1007. doi:10.1177/1087054715587096

Singh, K., & Zimmerman, A. W. (2015). Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Seminars in pediatric neurology, 22(2), 113–125. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2015.03.006

Rosen, T. E., Mazefsky, C. A., Vasa, R. A., & Lerner, M. D. (2018). Co-occurring psychiatric conditions in autism spectrum disorder. International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England), 30(1), 40–61. doi:10.1080/09540261.2018.1450229

For a full list of updated research articles click here: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=adhd+asd

ADAPTED FROM ARTICLE FROM Feb 08, 2020 on Psychology Today

(https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/1-2-3-adhd/202002/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-adhd)

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ADD does not exist!

ADD is widely known as the type of ADHD were you don't bounce off the walls, some call it The… Read More

1 year ago

ADHD: Can Aphantasia supercharge your gut feeling?

Having no Mind’s Eye, also known as Aphantasia, I have to rely heavily on my intuition instead. According to the… Read More

1 year ago

ADHD: 5x højere risiko for fængselsstraf

At have en nedsat hæmningskontrol medfører ikke blot fysisk hyperaktiv/impulsiv adfærd og letafledelighed. Et overset symptom ved ADHD er den… Read More

1 year ago

ADHtism – New Diagnosis?

At ADDspeaker we have our own term: ADHtism, which refers to those of us who have both ADHD and ASD,… Read More

1 year ago

Kære Camilla …

I 2016 blev jeg, via vanligt brev mail og sågar underskrevet af selveste Jette Myglegaard, daværende formand for ADHD-foreningen, ekskluderet… Read More

2 years ago

ADHD: From Cradle to Grave

ADHD is known to be associated with a wide array of comorbid psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases, which greatly influences… Read More

2 years ago

Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and ADHD

Having chronic or periodic involuntary limb movements, also called Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) or Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) are… Read More

2 years ago

Børn med ADHD voldtages af voksnes ideologiske magtkamp?

Siden 2010 har vi observeret at debatten omkring hvilken behandling der er anbefalet til børn med ADHD, primært har haft… Read More

2 years ago

New EU Consensus on Adult ADHD

Research in the field of Adult ADHD is in rapid growth in Europe in these years, last fall Franke et… Read More

1 year ago

Is it ADHD or ASD or ODD?

Many of us have difficulties with telling these three distinct disorders apart, due to their overlapping symptomalogy on self-control and… Read More

1 year ago

ADHD: Why Don’t You ‘Recall’ anything?

That ADHD causes massive impairment of Executive Functioning particular in Working Memory is not news ... But did you know… Read More

2 years ago

ADHD: Infektioner i barndommen giver højere risiko for psykiske lidelser

Vi kigger her på et helt nyt studie fra den danske stjerneforsker, Søren Dalsgaard, Ph.D. (AU) påviser en sammenhæng mellem… Read More

2 years ago

ADHD – Når timing ikke virker

Allerede tilbage i 1997, beskrev Dr. Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. at ADHD havde stor indflydelse på hvordan tid opleves, når… Read More

2 years ago

Maskering – et nødvendigt onde eller selvdestruktion?

For at være en del af samfundet er tilpasning nødvendigt, men for mange, hvis ikke de fleste, med autisme og/eller… Read More

2 years ago

Fortæller danske ADHD forskere sandheden?

Fortæller danske ADHD forskere sandheden, når deres forskningsresultater siger et og deres udtalelser til pressen siger noget andet? Er det… Read More

5 years ago

Har mit barn ADHD?

Har mit barn ADHD ? - Dette spørgsmål stiller mange forældre sig selv, særligt efter en ferie hvor man har… Read More

3 years ago

ADHD BASIS TEORI

ADHD er et emne der tales meget om i disse tider, med særligt fokus på inklusion, om for mange får… Read More

3 years ago

Dit 10 årige barn med ADHD er moden som en 7 årig!

Dit 10 årige barn med ADHD er moden som en 7 årig! Forstå hvorfor dit 10 årige barn med ADHD… Read More

5 years ago

New ADHD Diagnosis in ICD-11 gives people hope

In June, 2018, WHO announced it's new ICD-11, and with this ADHD got a facelift and was aligned with the… Read More

2 years ago

ADHD for Newbies

I den følgende artikel, kan du læse om hvad ADHD i virkeligheden er, betyder og medfører. Da mange af de… Read More

3 years ago

ADHD er helt misforstået i Danmark

Siden jeg selv fik min ADHD diagnose for mere end 6 år siden, har jeg kæmpet med alt jeg havde… Read More

2 years ago

ADHD og Inklusion

I Danmark har vi en lang og god tradition for at pædagogiske principper er fundament for vores Folkeskole. Problemet er… Read More

3 years ago

ADHD og seksualitet

Trods det at vi ved at den nedsatte eller helt manglende impuls -og selvkontrol som er et symptom på ubehandlet… Read More

3 years ago

Danmark er et ADHD u-land

I Danmark forstår man ikke ADHD. Det står fuldstændigt klart for mig, efter at jeg nu har researchet indgående i danske publikationer… Read More

5 years ago

Den første pille – starten på mit nye liv

I dette indlæg fortæller en 35-årige sen-diagnosticeret kvinde, om sin oplevelse af at tage medicin for sine ADHD symptomer, for… Read More

3 years ago

PTSD and CPTSD in ICD-11

On June 18th, 2018, WHO released their 11th version of their International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). I have previously taken… Read More

2 years ago

Tryk på ANDERKENDELSES-knappen – hvorfor ‘pyt-knappen’ ikke virker!

Som forælder til et barn med en udviklingsforstyrrelse er man ofte på overarbejde. Det kræver ufatteligt meget energi at kæmpe… Read More

2 years ago

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